Their achievements of the past continue to help shape and define the essence of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) today. This is the legacy of such early innovators as: Benjamin Banneker, the mathematician who helped map out and plan the city of Washington, D.C.; Charles Drew, the surgeon who pioneered blood transfusion; Garret Morgan, who invented the gas mask and the modern traffic light; botanist George Washington Carver, whose innovations with the peanut and other plants continue to enrich our lives and made him a trusted science advisor to such luminaries as President Teddy Roosevelt and Henry Ford; and Marie Daly, the first African American woman to receive a Ph.D. in chemistry, and an early innovator in the study of heart disease.